Hit the shark to try to scare it off, and if possible put something like a surfboard, paddle, or kayak between you and the shark.
Great White Sharks are ambush predators, which means they may leave you alone if you remove their element of surprise. This may not work on other types of sharks, but keeping your eye on the shark is still beneficial.
Try to avoid splashing wildly. Make deliberate movements to protect yourself, put distance between you and the shark, and get to safety.
Tourniquets are life saving medical devices that apply pressure to a limb to stop arterial bleeding. Not all Tourniquets are the same though. Maritime Tourniquets are marine- grade meaning they are made to be used wet and are durable in the ocean environment. If you bring a tourniquet with you that isn’t Maritime you may have complications or failures, which could lead to bleeding to death.
Most Shark bites are exploratory and a case of mistaken identity. To reduce your risk ask locals, and check shark reporting apps for recent sightings, avoid dusk and dawn, and never go out alone.
Sharks account for only 6% of surf injuries so don’t be scare, but be smart, and enjoy the water.